Human Immunoglobulins basically consist of heavy and light peptide chains. There are two types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Each plasma cell produces only one type of heavy chain and only one type of light chain. Heavy and light chains are then assembled to form immunoglobulins. Light chains attached to heavy chains, are called “bound light chains”. Light chains not attached to heavy chains are called “free light chains”. In healthy individuals the majority of light chains in serum exist bound to heavy chains. Excess light chains exist in the blood stream as free light chains. Under normal conditions total κ/λ ratio should be normally around 2:1 in serum.

In pathological conditions such as monoclonal gammopathies monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains may be present either alone or in conjugation with intact immunoglobulin molecules. In these situations the observed disturbance of the κ/λ ratio can be used to detect or confirm most immunoglobulin abnormalities. Moreover, since in these situations overproduction occurs, high concentrations of free light chains are present in serum. When the immunoglobulin light chains concentration exceeds the resoption capacity of the tubuli, free light chains the so-called Bence-Jones proteins can be identified in urine and this will be an indicator of monoclonal gammopathies. However in other cases, where renal damage may be present, intact immunoglobulins are also appearing in the urine. Because the assay measures both bound and free light chains other tests may be necessary to be performed such as electrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis or immunofixation to confirm the results.

Form: Liquid ready-to-use
Shelf life: 12 months @ 2-8 C
On-Board Stability: 60 days
Sample: Serum, or plasma with heparin or EDTA
Detection limit: 1.4 mg/dL
Linearity: 1.4-800 mg/dL

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